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Publications of the years as well as Monographs and Patents of the chair of Biochemistry II.


Hilberath T, Raffaele A, Windeln LM, Urlacher VB, 2021, Evaluation of P450 monooxygenase activity in lyophilized recombinant E. coli cells compared to resting cells, AMB Express., 11(1):162, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13568-021-01319-0

Kokorin A, Parshin PD, Bakkes PJ, Pometun AA, Tishkov VI, Urlacher VB, 2021, Genetic fusion of P450 BM3 and formate dehydrogenase towards self-sufficient biocatalysts with enhanced activity, Scientific Reports, 11(1):21706, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-00957-5

Lappe A, Jankowski N, Albrecht A, Koschorreck K, 2021, Characterization of a thermotolerant aryl-alcohol oxidase from Moesziomyces antarcticus oxidizing 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furancarboxylic acid, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnologydoi.org/10.1007/s00253-021-11557-8

Jankowski N, Urlacher VB, Koschorreck K, 2021, Two adjacent C-terminal mutations enable expression of aryl-alcohol oxidase from Pleurotus eryngii in Pichia pastoris, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnologyhttps://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-021-11585-4

Decembrino D, Raffaele A, Knöfel R, Girhard M, Urlacher V, 2021, Synthesis of (-)-deoxypodophyllotoxin and (-)-epipodophyllotoxin via a multi-enzyme cascade in E. coli, Microbial Cell Factories, 20:183, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12934-021-01673-5

Yakubov IT, Sakhibnazarova KA, Urlacher V, Mavlonov GT, Miralimova SM, 2021, Purification and Identification of Bacteriocin from Lactobacillus plantarum, Chemistry of Natural Compounds , 57:404–406, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10600-021-03372-4

Urlacher VB, Koschorreck K., 2021, Pecularities and applications of aryl-alcohol oxidases from fungi, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology105:4111–4126, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-021-11337-4

Luelf UJ, Reiss GJ, Bokel A, Urlacher VB, 2021, Selective biocatalytic synthesis and crystal structure of (2R,6R)-hydroxyketaminium chloride, C13H17Cl2NO2, Zeitschrift für Kristallographie - New Crystal Structures, 236(4):827-829, https://doi.org/10.1515/ncrs-2021-0055

Decembrino D, Girhard M, Urlacher VB, 2021, Use of copper as a trigger for in vivo activity of E. coli laccase CueO: A simple tool for biosynthetic purposes, ChemBioChem, 22(8):1470-1479, https://doi.org/10.1002/cbic.202000775

Bokel A, Hutter MC, Urlacher VB, 2021, Molecular evolution of a cytochrome P450 for the synthesis of potential antidepressant (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine, Chemical Communications, 57:520-523, https://doi.org/10.1039/D0CC06729F


Decembrino D, Ricklefs E, Wohlgemuth S, Girhard M, Schullehner K, Jach G and Urlacher VB, 2020, Assembly of plant enzymes in E. coli for the production of the valuable (-)-podophyllotoxin precursor (-)-pluviatolide, ACS Synthetic Biology, 9(11): 3091–3103, https://doi.org/10.1021/acssynbio.0c00354

Jankowski N, Koschorreck K, Urlacher VB, 2020, High-level expression of aryl-alcohol oxidase 2 from Pleurotus eryngii in Pichia pastoris for production of fragrances and bioactive precursors, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology104:9205–9218, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-020-10878-4

Reiss GJ, Urlacher VB and Luelf UJ, 2020, Enzyme-mediated synthesis and crystal structure of (2R,4S)-hydroxyketamine, C13H16ClNO2, Zeitschrift für Kristallographie - New Crystal Structures, 235(5):1037-1039, https://doi.org/10.1515/ncrs-2020-0157

Szigyártó IC, Mihály J, Wacha A, Bogdan D, Juhasz T, Kohut G, Schlosser G, Zsila F, Urlacher V, Varga Z, Fulop F, Bóta A, Mándity I and Beke-Somfai T, 2020, Membrane active Janus-oligomers of β3-peptides, Chemical Science, Issue 24, https://doi.org/10.1039/D0SC01344G

Bokel A, Rühlmann A, Hutter MC, Urlacher VB, 2020, Enzyme-Mediated Two-Step Regio- and Stereoselective Synthesis of Potential Rapid-Acting Antidepressant (2S,6S)-Hydroxynorketamine, ACS Catalysis, 10(7):4151-4159, https://doi.org/10.1021/acscatal.9b05384

Thesseling FA, Hutter MC, Wiek C, Kowalski JP, Rettie AE, Girhard M, 2020, Novel insights into oxidation of fatty acids and fatty alcohols by cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP4B1, Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 679:108216, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2019.108216

Hilberath T, Windeln LM, Decembrino D, Le-Huu P, Bilsing FL, Urlacher VB, 2020, Two‐step screening for identification of drug‐metabolizing bacterial cytochromes P450 with diversified selectivity, ChemCatChem, 12(6):1710-1719, https://doi.org/10.1002/cctc.201901967


Urlacher VB, Bernhardt R, 2019, Cytochrome P450 - vielseitige Enzyme für Medizin und Biotechnologie, Biospektrum, 25(7):715-718, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12268-019-1303-8

Kowalski JP, McDonald MG, Whittington D, Guttman M, Scian M, Girhard M, Hanenberg H, Wiek C, Rettie AE, 2019, Structure-Activity relationships for CYP4B1 bioactivation of 4-ipomeanol congeners: Direct correlation between cytotoxicity and trapped reactive intermediates, Chemical Research in Toxicology, 32(12):2488-2498, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrestox.9b00330

Olbrich AC, Schild JN, Urlacher VB, 2019, Correlation between the T1 copper reduction potential and catalytic activity of a small laccase, Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 201:110843, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2019.110843

Knedel T-O, Ricklefs E, Schlüsener C, Urlacher VB, Janiak C, 2019,  Laccase encapsulation in ZIF-8 metal-organic framework shows stability enhancement and substrate selectivity, ChemistryOpen, „8(11):1337-1344, https://doi.org/10.1002/open.201900146

Willot SJP, Tieves F, Girhard M, Urlacher VB, Hollmann F,  de Gonzalo G, 2019, P450BM3-catalyzed oxidations employing dual functional small molecules, Catalysts, 9(7), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9070567

Lopes P, Koschorreck K, Pedersen JN, Ferapontov A, Lörcher S, Pedersen JS, Urlacher VB, Ferapontova EE, 2019, Bacillus licheniformis CotA laccase mutant: Electrocatalytic reduction of O2 from 0.6 V (SHE) at pH 8 and in seawater,  ChemElectroChem, 6(7):2043-2049, https://doi.org/10.1002/celc.201900363

Urlacher VB, Girhard M, 2019, Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in biotechnology and synthetic biology, Trends in Biotechnology, 37(8):882-897, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tibtech.2019.01.001


Bronikowski A, Koschorreck K, Urlacher VB, 2018, Redesign of a new manganese peroxidase highly expressed in Pichia pastoris towards a lignin-degrading versatile peroxidase, ChemBioChem, 19(23):2481-2489, https://doi.org/10.1002/cbic.201800500

Höfler GT, Fernández‐Fueyo E, Pesic M, Younes SH, Choi E-G, Kim YH, Urlacher VB, Arends IWCE, Hollman F, 2018, A photoenzymatic NADH regeneration system, ChemBioChem, 19(22):2344-2347, https://doi.org/10.1002/cbic.201800530

Urlacher VB, 2018, The 20th International Conference on Cytochrome P450: Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology (ICCP450 2017) was held August 27-31, 2017 in Düsseldorf, Germany, Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 188:A1-A2, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2018.09.001

Le-Huu P, Rekow D, Krüger C, Bokel A, Heidt T, Schaubach S, Claasen B, Hölzel S, Frey W, Laschat S, Urlacher VB, 2018, Chemoenzymatic route to oxyfunctionalized cembranoids facilitated by substrate and protein engineering, Chemistry - A European Journal, 24(46):12010-12021, https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.201802250

Jóźwik IK, Litzenburger M, Khatri Y, Schifrin A, Girhard M, Urlacher VB, Thunnissen A-M WH, Bernhardt R, 2018, Structural insights into oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids and flavanone by myxobacterial cytochrome P450 CYP267B1, Biochemical Journal, 475:2801-2817, https://doi.org/10.1042/BCJ20180402

Worsch A, Eggimann FK, Girhard M, Bühler CJ, Tieves F, Czaja R, Vogel A, Grumaz C, Sohn K, Lütz S, Kittelmann M, Urlacher VB, 2018, A novel cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from Streptomyces platensis resembles activities of human drug metabolizing P450s, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 115:2156-2166, https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.26781

Petrović D, Bokel A, Allan M, Urlacher VB, Strodel B, 2018, Simulation-Guided Design of Cytochrome P450 for Chemo- and Regioselective Macrocyclic Oxidation, Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, 58(4):848-858, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jcim.8b00043

Jetzschmann KJ, Yarmana A, Rustam L, Kielb P, Urlacher VB, Fischer A, Weidinger IM, Wollenberger U, Scheller FW, 2018, Molecular LEGO by domain-imprinting of cytochrome P450 BM3, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 164:240-246, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.01.047

Rühlmann A, Groth G, Urlacher VB, 2018, Characterization of CYP154F1 from Thermobifida fusca YX and extension of its substrate spectrum by site-directed mutagenesis, ChemBioChem, 19(5):478-485, https://doi.org/10.1002/cbic.201700565

Kranz-Finger S, Mahmoud O, Ricklefs E, Ditz N, Bakkes PJ, Urlacher VB, 2018, Insights into the functional properties of the marneral oxidase CYP71A16 from Arabidopsis thaliana, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins and Proteomics, 1866(1):2-10, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbapap.2017.07.008


Loeschcke A, Dienst D, Wewer V, Hage-Hülsmann J, Dietsch M, Kranz-Finger S, Hüren V, Metzger S, Urlacher VB, Gigolashvili T, Kopriva S, Axmann IM, Drepper T, Jaeger KE, 2017, The photosynthetic bacteria Rhodobacter capsulatus and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 as new hosts for cyclic plant triterpene biosynthesis, PLoS ONE, 12(12):e0189816, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0189816

Bakkes PJ, Riehm JL, Sagadin T, Rühlmann A, Schubert P, Biemann S, Girhard M, Hutter MC, Bernhardt R, Urlacher VB, 2017, Engineering of versatile redox partner fusions that support monooxygenase activity of functionally diverse cytochrome P450s, Scientific Reports, 7:9570, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-10075-w

Girhard M, Ricklefs E, Urlacher VB, 2017, Multienzymatische Kaskaden zur Synthese von Feinchemikalien und Polymervorstufen, Biospektrum, 23(6):712–715, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12268-017-0859-4

Grumaz C, Vainshtein Y, Kirstahler P, Luetz S, Kittelmann M, Schroer K, Eggimann F, Czaja R, Vogel A, Hilberath T, Worsch A, Girhard M, Urlacher VB, Sandberg M, Sohn K, 2017, Draft genome sequences of three Actinobacteria strains presenting new candidate organisms with high potentials for specific P450 cytochromes, Genome Announcements, 5(28):e00532-17, https://doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00532-17.

Bronikowski  A, Hagedoorn PL, Koschorreck K, Urlacher VB, 2017, Expression of a new laccase from Moniliophthora roreri at high levels in Pichia pastoris and its potential application in micropollutant degradation, AMB Express, 7:73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-017-0368-3

Koschorreck K, Wahrendorff F, Biemann S, Jesse A, Urlacher VB, 2017, Cell thermolysis - A simple and fast approach for isolation of bacterial laccases with potential to decolorize industrial dyes, Process Biochemistry, 56:171-176, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2017.02.015

Rühlmann A, Antovic D, Müller TJJ, Urlacher VB, 2017, Regioselective Hydroxylation of Stilbenes by Engineered Cytochrome P450 from Thermobifida fusca YX, Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis, 359(6):984-994, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adsc.201601168

Roellecke K, Jäger VD, Gyurov VH, Kowalski JP, Mielke S, Rettie AE, Hanenberg H, Wiek C, Girhard M, 2017, Ligand characterization of CYP4B1 isoforms modified for high-level expression in E. coli and HepG2 cells, Protein Engineering, Design and Selection, 30(3):207-218, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/protein/gzw075


Le-Huu P, Petrović D, Strodel B, Urlacher VB, 2016, One-pot, two-step hydroxylation of the macrocyclic diterpenoid β-Cembrenediol catalyzed by P450 BM3 mutants, ChemCatChem, 8(24):3755-3761, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cctc.201600973

Ruff AJ, Arlt M, van Ohlen M, Kardashliev T, Konarzycka-Bessler M, Bocola M, Dennig A, Urlacher VB, Schwaneberg U, 2016, An engineered outer membrane pore enables an efficient oxygenation of aromatics and terpenes, Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic, 134:285-294, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcatb.2016.11.007

Schulz S, Schumacher D, Raszkowski D, Girhard M, Urlacher VB, 2016, Fusion to hydrophobin HFBI improves the catalytic performance of a cytochrome P450 system, Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 4:57, http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2016.00057

Ricklefs E, Girhard M, Urlacher VB, 2016, Three-steps in one-pot: whole-cell biocatalytic synthesis of enantiopure (+)- and (−)-pinoresinol via kinetic resolution, Microbial Cell Factories, 15:78, http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12934-016-0472-0.

Tieves F, Erenburg IN, Mahmoud O, Urlacher VB, 2016, Synthesis of chiral 2-alkanols from n-alkanes by a P. putida whole-cell biocatalyst, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 113(9):1845-1852, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.25953


Bakkes PJ, Biemann S, Bokel A, Eickholt M, Girhard M, Urlacher VB, 2015, Design and improvement of artificial redox modules by molecular fusion of flavodoxin and flavodoxin reductase from Escherichia coli, Scientific reports, 5:12158, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep12158

Ricklefs E, Girhard M, Koschorreck K, Smit MS, Urlacher VB, 2015, Two-step one-pot synthesis of pinoresinol from eugenol in a novel enzymatic cascade, ChemCatChem, 7(12):1857-1864, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cctc.201500182

Suljić S, Mortzfeld FB, Gunne M, Urlacher VB, Pietruszka J, 2015, Enhanced Biocatalytic Performance of Bacterial Laccase from Streptomyces sviceus: Application in the Michael Addition Sequence Towards 3-Arylated 4-Oxochromanes, ChemCatChem, 7(8):1380-1385, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cctc.201500142

Schulz S, Girhard M, Gaßmeyer SK, Jäger VD, Schwarze D, Vogel A, Urlacher VB, 2015, Selective Enzymatic Synthesis of the Grapefruit Flavor (+)-Nootkatone, ChemCatChem, 7:601-604, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cctc.201402952

Le-Huu P, Heidt T, Claasen B, Laschat S, Urlacher VB, 2015, Chemo-, Regio-, and Stereoselective Oxidation of the Monocyclic Diterpenoid β-Cembrenediol by P450 BM3, ACS Catalysis, 5:1772–1780, http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cs5020404

Khatri Y, Hannemann F, Girhard M, Kappl R, Hutter M, Urlacher VB, Bernhardt R, 2015, A natural heme-signature variant of CYP267A1 from Sorangium cellulosum So ce56 executes diverse ω-hydroxylation, FEBS Journal, 282(1):74-88, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.13104


Hernández-Martin A, von Bühler CJ, Tieves F, Fernández S, Ferrero M, Urlacher VB, 2014, Whole-cell biotransformation with recombinant cytochrome P450 for the selective oxidation of Grundmann´s ketone, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 22(20):5586-5592, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2014.06.005

Bogazkaya A, von Bühler CJ, Kriening S, Busch A, Seifert A, Pleiss J, Laschat S and Urlacher VB, 2014, Selective allylic hydroxylation of acyclic terpenoids by CYP154E1 from Thermobifida fusca YX, Beilstein J. Org. Chem., 10:1347–1353, http://dx.doi.org/10.3762/bjoc.10.137

Ricklefs E, Winkler N, Koschorreck K, Urlacher VB, 2014, Expanding the laccase-toolbox: A laccase from Corynebacterium glutamicum with phenol coupling and cuprous oxidase activity, Journal of Biotechnology, 191(10):46-53, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2014.05.031

Bernhardt R, Urlacher VB, 2014, Cytochromes P450 as promising catalysts for biotechnological application: chances and limitations, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology98(14):6185-6203, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-014-5767-7

Paul CE, Churakova E, Maurits E, Girhard M, Urlacher VB, Hollmann F, 2014, In situ formation of H2O2 for P450 peroxygenases, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 22(20):5692-5696, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2014.05.074

von Bühler C, Urlacher VB, 2014, Novel P450-based biocatalyst for the selective production of 2-alkanols, Chemical Communications, 50:4089-4091, http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C4CC00647J

Gunne M, Höppner A, Hagedoorn PL, Urlacher VB, 2014, Structural and redox properties of the small laccase Ssl1 from Streptomyces sviceus, FEBS Journal, 281(18):4307-4318, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.127


Gunasekaran V, Donmez E, Girhard M, Urlacher VB, Constantí M, 2013, Biodegradation of fuel oxygenates and their effect on the expression of a newly identified cytochrome P450 gene in Achromobacter xylosoxidans MCM2/2/1, Process Biochemistry, 49(1):124-129, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2013.09.028

von Bühler C, Le-Huu P, Urlacher VB, 2013, Cluster Screening: An Effective Approach for Probing the Substrate Space of Uncharacterized Cytochrome P450s, ChemBioChem, 14(16):2189-2198, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbic.201300271 

Shumyantseva VV, Bulko TV, Lisitsyna VB, Urlacher VB, Kuzikov AV, Suprun EV, Archakov AI, 2013, Electrochemical measurement of intraprotein and interprotein electron transfer, Biophysics (Russian Federation), 58(3):349-354, http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006350913030172

Gunne M, Al-Sultani D and Urlacher VB, 2013, Enhancement of copper content and specific activity of CotA laccase from Bacillus licheniformis by coexpression with CopZ copper chaperone in E. coli, Journal of Biotechnology, 168(3):252–255, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2013.06.011

Khatri Y, Hannemann F, Girhard M, Kappl R, Même A, Ringle M, Janocha S, Leize-Wagner E, Urlacher VB and Bernhardt R, 2013, Novel family members of CYP109 from Sorangium cellulosum So ce56 exhibit characteristic biochemical and biophysical properties, Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry, 60(1):18-29, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bab.1087

Girhard M, Kunigk E, Tihovsky S, Shumyantseva VV and Urlacher VB, 2013, Light-driven biocatalysis with cytochrome P450 peroxygenases, Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry, 60(1):111-118, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bab.1063

Girhard M, Tieves F, Weber E, Smit MS and Urlacher VB, 2013, Cytochrome P450 reductase from Candida apicola: Versatile redox partner for bacterial P450s, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 97(4):1625-1635, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-012-4026-z

Roduner E, Kaim W, Sarkar B, Urlacher VB, Pleiss J, Gläser R, Einicke WD, Sprenger GA, Beifuß U, Klemm E, Liebner C, Hieronymus H, Hsu SF, Plietker B and Laschat S, 2013, Selective Catalytic Oxidation of C-H Bonds with Molecular Oxygen, ChemCatChem, 5(1):82-112, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cctc.201200266


Gunne M and Urlacher VB, 2012, Characterization of the Alkaline Laccase Ssl1 from Streptomyces sviceus with Unusual Properties Discovered by Genome Mining, PLoS ONE 7(12):e52360, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052360

Schulz S, Girhard M and Urlacher VB, 2012, Biocatalysis - Key to Selective Oxidations, ChemCatChem, 4(12):1889-1895, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cctc.201200533

Zehentgruber D, Urlacher VB and Lütz S, 2012, Studies on the enantioselective oxidation of β-ionone with a whole E. coli system expressing cytochrome P450 monooxygenase BM3, Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic, 84:62-64, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcatb.2012.05.014

Siriphongphaew A, Pisnupong P, Wongkongkatep J, Inprakhon P, Vangnai AS, Honda K, Ohtake H, Kato J, Ogawa J, Shimizu S, Urlacher VB, Schmid RD and Pongtharangkul T, 2012, Development of a whole-cell biocatalyst co-expressing P450 monooxygenase and glucose dehydrogenase for synthesis of epoxyhexane, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 95(2):357-367, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-012-4039-7

Constantin MA, Conrad J, Merişor E, Koschorreck K, Urlacher VB and Beifuss U, 2012, The Oxidative Dimerization of (E)- and (Z)-2-Propenylsesamol with O2 in the Presence and Absence of Laccases and other Catalysts: Selective Formation of Carpanones and Benzopyrans under Different Reaction Conditions, Journal of Organic Chemistry, 77(10):4528-4543, http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jo300263k

Girhard M, Koschorreck K and Urlacher VB, 2012, Biokatalyse: Schlüssel zur selektiven Oxidation, Biospektrum, 2:212-215, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12268-012-0165-0

Urlacher VB, Girhard M, 2012, Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases: an update on perspectives for synthetic application, Trends in Biotechnology, 30(1):26-36, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tibtech.2011.06.012


Theurer M, El Baz Y, Koschorreck K, Urlacher VB, Rauhut G, Baro A and Laschat S, 2011, Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of the C3-C11-Fragment of Borrelidin, European Journal of organic Chemistry, 22:4242-4249, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejoc.201100412

Beuttler H, Hoffmann J, Jeske M, Hauer B, Schmid RD, Altenbuchner J and Urlacher VB, 2011, Biosynthesis of zeaxanthin in recombinant Pseudomonas putida, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 89(4):1137-1147, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-010-2961-0

Weber E, Seifert A, Antonovici M, Geinitz C, Pleiss J and Urlacher VB, 2011, Screening of a minimal enriched P450 BM3 mutant library for hydroxylation of cyclic and acyclic alkanes, Chemical communications (Cambridge, England), 47(3):944-946, http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c0cc02924f

Malca SH, Girhard M, Schuster S, Dürre P and Urlacher VB, 2011, Expression, purification and characterization of two Clostridium acetobutylicum flavodoxins: potential electron transfer partners for CYP152A2, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1814(1):257-264, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbapap.2010.06.013


Khatri Y, Girhard M, Romankiewicz A, Ringle M, Hannemann F, Urlacher VB, Hutter MC and Bernhardt R, 2010, Regioselective hydroxylation of norisoprenoids by CYP109D1 from Sorangium cellulosum So ce56, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 88(2):485-495, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-010-2756-3

Girhard M, Klaus T, Khatri Y, Bernhardt R and Urlacher VB, 2010, Characterization of the versatile monooxygenase CYP109B1 from Bacillus subtilis, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 87(2):595-607, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-010-2472-z

Weber E, Sirim D, Schreiber T, Thomas B, Pleiss J, Hunger M, Glaser R and Urlacher VB, 2010, Immobilization of P450 BM-3 monooxygenase on mesoporous molecular sieves with different pore diameters, Journal of Molecular Catalysis B-Enzymatic, 64(1-2):29-37, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcatb.2010.01.020

Jürgen B, Breitenstein A, Urlacher VB, Büttner K, Lin H, Hecker M, Schweder T, Neubauer P, 2010, Quality control of inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli, Microbial Cell Factories, 9:41, http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2859-9-41

Liu L, Schmid RD and Urlacher VB, 2010, Engineering cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP116B3 for high dealkylation activity, Biotechnology Letters, 32(6):841-845, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10529-010-0233-9


Girhard M, Machida K, Itoh M, Schmid RD, Arisawa A and Urlacher VB, 2009, Regioselective biooxidation of (+)-valencene by recombinant E. coli expressing CYP109B1 from Bacillus subtilis in a two-liquid-phase system, Microbial Cell Factories, 8:36, http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2859-8-36

Seifert A, Vomund S, Grohmann K, Kriening S, Urlacher VB, Laschat S and Pleiss J, 2009, Rational design of a minimal and highly enriched CYP102A1 mutant library with improved regio-, stereo- and chemoselectivity, Chembiochem, 10(5):853-861, dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbic.200800799; Hinweis: Erratum in Chembiochem, 2009, 10(9):1426

Koschorreck K, Schmid RD and Urlacher VB, 2009, Improving the functional expression of a Bacillus licheniformis laccase by random and site-directed mutagenesis, BMC Biotechnology, 9:12, http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6750-9-12

Li Y, Xu X, Dietrich M, Urlacher VB, Schmid RD, Ouyang PK and He BF, 2009, Identification and functional expression of a Delta9-fatty acid desaturase from the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp MLY15, Journal of Molecular Catalysis B-Enzymatic, 56(2-3):96-101, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcatb.2008.07.012

Dietrich M, Do TA, Schmid RD, Pleiss J and Urlacher VB, 2009, Altering the regioselectivity of the subterminal fatty acid hydroxylase P450 BM-3 towards gamma- and delta-positions, Journal of Biotechnology, 139(1):115-117, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2008.10.002


Branco RJ, Seifert A, Budde M, Urlacher VB, Ramos MJ and Pleiss J, 2008, Anchoring effects in a wide binding pocket: the molecular basis of regioselectivity in engineered cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from B. megaterium, Proteins, 73(3):597-607, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prot.22083

Dietrich M, Eiben S, Asta C, Do TA, Pleiss J and Urlacher VB, 2008, Cloning, expression and characterisation of CYP102A7, a self-sufficient P450 monooxygenase from Bacillus licheniformis, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 79(6):931-940, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-008-1500-8

Koschorreck K, Richter SM, Swierczek A, Beifuss U, Schmid RD and Urlacher VB, 2008, Comparative characterization of four laccases from Trametes versicolor concerning phenolic C-C coupling and oxidation of PAHs, Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 474(1):213-219, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2008.03.009

Koschorreck K, Richter SM, Ene AB, Roduner E, Schmid RD and Urlacher VB, 2008, Cloning and characterization of a new laccase from Bacillus licheniformis catalyzing dimerization of phenolic acids, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 79(2):217-224, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-008-1417-2

Li Y, Dietrich M, Schmid RD, He B, Ouyang P and Urlacher VB, 2008, Identification and functional expression of a Delta9-fatty acid desaturase from Psychrobacter urativorans in Escherichia coli, Lipids, 43(3):207-213, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11745-007-3150-5

Li HM, Mei LH, Urlacher VB and Schmid RD, 2008, Cytochrome P450 BM-3 evolved by random and saturation mutagenesis as an effective indole-hydroxylating catalyst, Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 144(1):27-36, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-007-8002-5


Girhard M, Schuster S, Dietrich M, Dürre P and Urlacher VB, 2007, Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from Clostridium acetobutylicum: a new alpha-fatty acid hydroxylase, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 362(1):114-119, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.07.155

Watanabe Y, Laschat S, Budde M, Affolter O, Shimada Y, and Urlacher VB, 2007, Oxidation of acyclic monoterpenes by P450 BM-3 monooxygenase: influence of the substrate E/Z-isomerism on enzyme chemo- and regioselectivity, Tetrahedron, 63(38):9413-9422, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tet.2007.06.104

Eiben S, Bartelmäs H and Urlacher VB, 2007, Construction of a thermostable cytochrome P450 chimera derived from self-sufficient mesophilic parents, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 75(5):1055-1061, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-007-0922-z

Li HM, Mei LH, Urlacher VB and Schmid RD, 2007, Directed evolution of cytochrome P450 BM-3 by saturation mutagenesis, Zhejiang Daxue Xuebao (Gongxue Ban)/Journal of Zhejiang University (Engineering Science), 41(7):1214-1218

Kühnel K, Maurer SC, Galeyeva Y, Frey W, Laschat S, and Urlacher VB, 2007, Hydroxylation of dodecanoic acid and (2R,4R,6R,8R)-tetramethyldecanol on a preparative scale using an NADH-dependent CYP102A1 mutant, Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis, 349(8-9):1451-1461, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adsc.200700054

Pflug S, Richter SM and Urlacher VB, 2007, Development of a fed-batch process for the production of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP102A1 from Bacillus megaterium in E. coli, Journal of Biotechnology, 129(3):481-488, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2007.01.013

Feenstra KA, Starikov EB, Urlacher VB, Commandeur JN and Vermeulen NP, 2007, Combining substrate dynamics, binding statistics, and energy barriers to rationalize regioselective hydroxylation of octane and lauric acid by CYP102A1 and mutants, Protein Science, 16(3):420-431, http://dx.doi.org/10.1110/ps.062224407

Romankiewicz A, Busch A, Laschat S, Schmid RD and Urlacher VB, 2007, Separation and identification of oxidized terpenoids by thin-layer chromatography, Analytical Letters, 40(7):1487-1495, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00032710701327138


Liu L, Schmid RD and Urlacher VB, 2006, Cloning, expression, and characterization of a self-sufficient cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from Rhodococcus ruber DSM 44319, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 72(5):876-882, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-006-0355-0

Eiben S, Kaysser L, Maurer S, Kühnel K, Urlacher VB and Schmid RD, 2006, Preparative use of isolated CYP102 monooxygenases - a critical appraisal, Journal of Biotechnology, 124(4):662-669, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2006.02.013

Urlacher VB and Eiben S, 2006, Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases: perspectives for synthetic application, Trends in Biotechnology, 24(7):324-330, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tibtech.2006.05.002

Budde M, Morr M, Schmid RD and Urlacher VB, 2006, Selective hydroxylation of highly branched fatty acids and their derivatives by CYP102A1 from Bacillus megaterium, Chembiochem, 7(5):789-794, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbic.200500444

Urlacher VB and Schmid RD, 2006, Recent advances in oxygenase-catalyzed biotransformations, Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, 10(2):156-161, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2006.02.001

Urlacher VB, Makhsumkhanov A and Schmid RD, 2006, Biotransformation of β-ionone by engineered cytochrome P450 BM-3, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 70(1):53-59, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-005-0028-4

Lentz O, Feenstra A, Habicher T, Hauer B, Schmid RD and Urlacher VB, 2006, Altering the regioselectivity of cytochrome P450 CYP102A3 of Bacillus subtilis by using a new versatile assay system, Chembiochem, 7(2):345-350, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbic.200500266

Momoi K, Hofmann U, Schmid RD and Urlacher VB, 2006, Reconstitution of β-carotene hydroxylase activity of thermostable CYP175A1 monooxygenase, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 339(1):331-336, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.11.023


Appel D, Schmid RD, Dragan CA, Bureik M and Urlacher VB, 2005, A fluorimetric assay for cortisol, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 383(2):182-186, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-005-0022-9

Li HM, Mei LH, Urlacher VB and Schmid RD, 2005, Cytochrome P450BM-3 mutants with improved catalytic properties of hydroxylating indole to indigo by error-prone PCR, Progress in Biochemistry and Biophysics, 32(7):630-635

Maurer SC, Kühnel K, Kaysser LA, Eiben S, Schmid RD and Urlacher VB, 2005, Catalytic hydroxylation in biphasic systems using CYP102A1 mutants, Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis, 347(7-8):1090-1098, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adsc.200505044

Schuster S, Enzelberger M, Trauthwein H, Schmid RD and Urlacher VB, 2005, pHluorin-based in vivo assay for hydrolase screening, Analytical Chemistry, 77(9):2727-2732, http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac0486692


Budde M, Maurer SC, Schmid RD and Urlacher VB, 2004, Cloning, expression and characterisation of CYP102A2, a self-sufficient P450 monooxygenase from Bacillus subtilis, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 66(2):180-186, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-004-1719-y

Urlacher VB, Lutz-Wahl S and Schmid RD, 2004, Microbial P450 enzymes in biotechnology, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 64(3):317-325, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-003-1514-1

Lentz O, Urlacher VB and Schmid RD, 2004, Substrate specificity of native and mutated cytochrome P450 (CYP102A3) from Bacillus subtilis, Journal of Biotechnology, 108(1):41-49, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2003.11.001

Urlacher VB and Schmid RD, 2004, Protein engineering of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from Bacillus megaterium, Methods in Enzymology, 388:208-224

Schmid RD, Pleiss J und Urlacher VB, 2004, Biokatalyse: Selektivoxidation von C-H-bindungen mit O2, Nachrichten aus der Chemie, 52(7-8):767-772


Fleming BD, Tian Y, Bell SG, Wong LL, Urlacher VB and Hill AO, 2003, Redox properties of cytochrome P450BM3 measured by direct methods, European Journal of Biochemistry, 270(20):4082-4088, http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1432-1033.2003.03799.x

Maurer SC, Schulze H, Schmid RD and Urlacher VB, 2003, Immobilisation of P450 BM-3 and an NADP+ cofactor recycling system: Towards a technical application of heme-containing monooxygenases in fine chemical synthesis, Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis, 345(6-7):802-810


Urlacher VB and Schmid RD, 2002, Biotransformations using prokaryotic P450 monooxygenases, Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 13(6):557-564, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0958-1669(02)00357-9

Monographs and Chapters in Monographs

Urlacher VB and Koschorreck K, 2018, Enzymstruktur und -funktion, in: K-E Jaeger, A Liese, C Syldatk (eds.), Einführung in die Enzymtechnologie, 1st edition, Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, pp. 17-33; ISBN: 978-3-662-57618-2; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-57619-9

Girhard M, Bakkes PJ, Mahmoud O and Urlacher VB, 2015, P450 Biotechnology, in: PR Ortiz de Montellano (ed.), Cytochrome P450, 4th edition, Springer International Publishing Switzerland, pp. 451-520; ISBN 978-3-319-12107-9; http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-12108-6_8

Urlacher VB and Schulz S, 2014, Multi-Enzyme Systems and Cascade Reactions Involving Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases, in: S Riva, and WD Fessner (eds.), Cascade Biocatalysis: Integrating Stereoselective and Environmentally Friendly Reactions, 1st edition, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, pp. 87-132; ISBN: 978-3-527-33522-0; http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9783527682492.ch5

Urlacher VB, 2012, Oxidation: Stereoselective Oxidations with Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases, in: EM Carreira, H Yamamoto (series eds.), NJ Turner (volume ed.), Comprehensive Chirality - Volume 7: Synthetic Methods VI - Enzymatic and Semi-Enzymatic, 1st edition, Elsevier Ltd., New York, pp. 275–294; ISBN 978-0-08-095168-3; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-095167-6.00716-3

Koschorreck K, von Bühler CJ, Schulz S and Urlacher VB, 2012, Protein Engineering of Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases, in: S Lutz, UT Bornscheuer (eds.), Protein Engineering Handbook: Volume 3, 1st edition, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp. 327-362; ISBN 978-3-527-33123-9

Urlacher VB and Girhard M, 2012, Oxyfunctionalization of C-H-bonds, in: K Drauz, H Gröger, O May (eds.), Enzyme Catalysis in Organic Synthesis, 3rd edition, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp. 1227-1267; ISBN 978-3-527-32547-4; http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9783527639861.ch30

Girhard M, 2011, Bacterial cytochrome P450 monooxygenases: Investigations on redox partners and optimization for whole cell biocatalysis, Südwestdeutscher Verlag für Hochschulschriften, Saarbrücken; ISBN 978-3-8381-2556-5

Ogawa J, Li QS, Shimizu S, Urlacher VB, Schmid RD, 2010, Engineering of Bacterial Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases as Biocatalysts for Chemical Synthesis and Environmental Bioremediation, in: Chiang T. Hou and Jei-Fu Shaw (eds.), Biocatalysis and Biomolecular Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; pp.349-359; ISBN 978-0-470-48759-4; http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470608524.ch22

Girhard M and Urlacher VB, 2010, Biooxidation with cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, in: JE Bäckvall (ed.), Modern Oxidation Methods, 2nd edition, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp. 421-450; ISBN 978-3-527-32320-3; http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9783527632039.ch12

Urlacher VB, 2010, Catalysis with Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases, in: PT Anastas (series ed.), R Crabtree (ed.), Handbook of Green Chemistry - Green Catalysis: Volume 3 - Biocatalysis, 1st edition, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, ISBN 978-3-527-32498-9; http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9783527628698.hgc025

Urlacher VB, Bell SG and Wong LL, 2007, The bacterial cytochrome P450 monooxygenases: P450cam and P450 BM-3, in: RD Schmid, VB Urlacher (eds.), Modern Biooxidation: Enzyme, Reactions and Applications, 1st edition, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp. 99-120; ISBN 978-3-527-31507-9; http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9783527611522.ch4

Schmid RD and Urlacher VB, 2007, Modern Biooxidation: Enzyme, Reactions and Applications, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 318 pages; ISBN 978-3-527-31507-9; http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9783527611522


Kathri Y, Bernhardt R, Hanneman F, Urlacher VB, Girhard M, 2010, Biokatalysator für die Hydroxylierung und/oder Epoxidierung, Deutsches Patent- und Markenamt; Aktenzeichen DE: 10 2010 000 168.6; http://register.dpma.de/DPMAregister/pat/register?AKZ=1020100001686

Hauer B, Habicher T, Schmid RD, Maurer S, Urlacher VB, Schulze H, Huber N, Bachmann T, 2004, Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Hydroxylierungskatalysators und seine Verwendung, Deutsches Patent- und Markenamt; Aktenzeichen DE: 50 2004 002 309.6; http://register.dpma.de/DPMAregister/pat/register?AKZ=5020040023096

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